Master (general) plan
It so happened that my professional activity in one form or another is connected with the master (general) plans.
What is this "master plan" in Russia, and what am I actually doing?
I change the contents of Google Maps and the relief of the planet "The Earth".
But seriously, the "master plan" in Russia is a broad and extensible term.
The term «master plan» (or «general plan») in most cases is used when speaking about the project (planned) plan of the territory of the object.
The essence of designing a master plan is, figuratively speaking, the solution of a system of equations, which includes satisfying requirements in various spheres: fire, technological, sanitary and hygienic and aesthetic.
At the same time, it is necessary to strive for the maximum reduction in the cost of construction and optimal use of the territory of the projected facility.
Developer's (investor's) attitude to the project of the master plan is often unjustifiably disparaging.
Meanwhile, professionally taken decisions on the general plan, for example, in the planning of the territory and the production of excavation, can save a few tens of thousands of dollars (euros), even in private construction, not to mention the millions dollars (euros) at larger facilities.
In addition, for example, the level of comfort of the environment in which we and our families live depends on the decisions taken in master plan of a residential microdistrict. Excessive savings and unprofessionalism in the planing of yards, in organization of sites, parking lots and driveways lead to sad consequences and to reinforced concrete ghettos, unsuitable for normal life, whose witnesses you probably were in Russian Federation.
In addition, some errors in the design of other sections of the project documentation (architectural part, constructures, water supply, sewerage, etc.) can be relatively easy and inexpensive to fix. I do not diminish the importance and responsibility a work of the my collegs - architects, engineers and designers. The work of each colleague is important in the overall team.
But to change the material of facades or to drill a "forgotten" hole in the wall or between the floors can be inexpensive. But to demolish a building or a structure built "not by norm", or with an incorrectly chosen elevation, or to carry out the vertical planning of the relief anew to correct the drainage errors will already cost considerable funds.
The stages of design (development) of the master plan of an object in Russia, in most cases, are as follows:
Pre-project (sketch, concept of masterplan of the object);
Project documentation (for expert review of the project for compliance with regulatory requirements, for compilation of estimates and for estimates of the cost of construction of the facility);
Drawings for constructing (for the construction of the facility and the transfer of the project to the builders).
Pre-project stage: the main technological and planning decisions are made for economic calculations, preparation of a business plan and other preliminary technical and economic analysis of the territory.
The master plan in Russia at the design stage "Project documentation" is defined by the requirements of the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of February 16, 2008 N 87.
The master plan at this stage is called the "Scheme for the organization of the master plan of the land plot" and is intended for project examination for compliance with regulatory requirements, drawing up estimates and estimating the cost of building the facility (not for the construction of the facility).
The master plan in Russia at the design stage "Working documentation" ("Drawings for constructing") is determined by the requirements of GOST 21.508-93 "Rules for the implementation of the working documentation of master plans".
The master plan at this stage is called the "General Plan" (sometimes the "General Plan and Transport") and is intended for the construction of the facility.
In rare cases, the master plan on that stage of design is submit for examination.
Each stage of the general plan design is regulated by certain requirements to the composition, content, order of agreement and implementation (see the composition of the master plan volume at the stages "Project documentation" and "Working documentation" in the section "Useful ⮚ Structure of the master plan").
In addition to the above concepts "master plan", there are also others.
For example, on a cities scale, the "General Plan" is a legal document, a scientifically based plan for the development of the city (settlements), containing graphic materials presented in the form of maps (schemes) and textual part.
If it is a general planning of the territory of the existing facility, this master plan will be either an "executive master plan" or an "operational master plan".
The executive master plan is executed immediately after construction by surveyors (engineers make drawings on the general plan of the territory, builders embody projected, surveyors fix the result). The operational master plan is carried out during the "life" of the facility to monitor the situation, for example, at an industrial enterprise.
These are the most commonly used definitions of the term "master plan" that I encountered.
If you have any questions, write.